Spiked Allergens  

Many allergens from different plant, animal, fungal sources belong to the lipocalin family. Importantly, the loading state of  lipocalins with ligands determines their capacity to induce allergy. Siking of lipocalin allergens with ligands turns them tolerogenic.

This can be exploited for improving allergen immunotherapy: allergens are spiked with siderophore-iron complexes to counterbalance allergy. This work is supported by the aws - Austria Wirtschaftsservice.


Figure: The lipocalin-like major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 (turquoise) binds the complex of 3 catechols (grey) : 1 iron (red ball) in its pocket. The affinity achieved is outstanding (kcal/mol: -9,8). Model by Prof. L.F. Pacios, Madrid.


Published Patent 

Method and means for diagnosing and treating allergy. 
Inventors: Roth-Walter Franziska, Jensen-Jarolim Erika, Gomez-Casado Cristina, Diaz Perales Araceli, Fernandez Pacios Luis, Josef Singer.
WO 2015/104270 A1. 13. 01.2014


Scientific Publications

The major cow milk allergen Bos d 5 manipulates T-helper cells depending on its load with siderophore-bound iron.
Roth-Walter F, Pacios LF, Gomez-Casado C, Hofstetter G, Roth GA, Singer J, Diaz-Perales A, Jensen-Jarolim E. 
PLOS one, August 12, 2014, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0104803.

Bet v 1 from birch pollen is a lipocalin-like protein acting as allergen only when devoid of iron by promoting Th2 lymphocytes.
Roth-Walter F, Gomez-Casado C, Pacios LF, Willensdorfer A, Moskovskich A, Einhorn L, Mothes –Luksch N, Roth GA, Singer J, Diaz-Perales A, Jensen-Jarolim E. 
Journal of Biological Chemistry, 2014: Jun 20;289(25):17416-17421. Epub 2014 May 5.

Structural similarities of human & mammalian lipocalins, and their function in innate immunity. 
Jensen-Jarolim E, Pacios Luis F, Bianchini R, Hofstetter G, Roth-Walter, F. 
Allergy. 2016 Mar;71(3):286-94. doi: 10.1111/all.12797. Epub 2015 Nov 23.

Modeling iron-catecholates binding to NGAL protein.
Gómez-Casado C, Roth-Walter F, Jensen-Jarolim E, Díaz-Perales A, Pacios LF.
J Mol. Graphics and Modelling, 2013:  45; 111 – 121.